3 Significant accounting judgements, considerations and estimates

The preparation of the Vesteda Companies’ financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, as at the reporting date. However, uncertainty concerning these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or liability affected in future periods.

Assets and liabilities are classified as current (short-term) if Vesteda expects them to be realised or settled within twelve months of the reporting date.

Judgements

General

In the process of applying Vesteda's accounting policies, management has made judgements, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the consolidated financial statements.

Considerations

Revenue recognition

A property sale is recognised when the beneficial ownership including the financial rights and risks of the ownership has been transferred.

Classification of property

The Vesteda Companies use the following criteria to determine the classification of a property:

  • Investment property comprising land and buildings (principally residential properties) are held primarily to earn rental income and capital appreciation with the exception of properties which are not occupied substantially for use by, or in the operations of, the Vesteda Companies, or for sale in the ordinary course of business (we also refer to note 17 investment property).

  • Investment property under construction comprises land and buildings (principally residential properties) under construction with the aim of adding to the investment property portfolio upon completion.

  • Inventory property comprises property that is held for sale in the ordinary course of business. Principally, this is residential property that the Vesteda Companies have developed with the intention to sell on completion of construction.

Operating lease contracts – the Vesteda Companies as lessor

The Vesteda Companies have entered into property leases on their investment property portfolio. Vesteda has determined, based on an evaluation of the terms and conditions of the arrangements, that it retains all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of these properties and so accounts for the leases as operating leases.

Lease contracts – the Vesteda Companies as lessee

The Vesteda Companies have entered into land leases as a lessee. Vesteda has determined, based on an evaluation of the terms and conditions of the arrangements, that in most cases, the land lease is an operating lease, as the Vesteda Companies do not retain the significant risks and rewards incidental to ownership.

Tax status

Vesteda is a mutual fund for the joint account of the participants (‘fonds voor gemene rekening’, FGR). The fund is tax transparent and investors can join or leave the fund through the manager. Participants can hold their partnership contribution in Vesteda through an entity with its own legal and tax structure.

Each participant is therefore responsible for its individual tax liabilities and individual tax compliance obligations as a result of the issue, holding or redemption of participation rights.

The manager is responsible for compliance with the tax rulings relating to the holding, issue and redemption of participation rights.

Vesteda Investment Management BV, Vesteda Project Development BV, Vesteda Finance BV, Custodian Vesteda Fund (CVF) I BV, CVF II BV, CVF III BV, CVF IV BV and CVF V BV are taxable for Dutch corporate income tax.

Furthermore, the Fund reached an agreement with the Tax authorities known as ‘Horizontaal toezicht’ and several tax rulings exist regarding VAT and transfer tax.

The Vesteda Companies recognise liabilities for current taxes based on estimates of whether corporate income taxes will be due. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will affect the corporate income and deferred tax provisions in the period in which the determination is made. Any deferred tax asset relating to income tax on the possible offset of losses for tax purposes and differences between accounting policies for commercial and tax purposes is recognised at current tax rates to the extent that it is probable that they can be utilised.

Estimates

Estimation of net realisable value for inventory property

Inventory is stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value (NRV).

NRV for inventory property is assessed by reference to market conditions and prices existing at the reporting date and is determined by the Vesteda Companies after taking suitable external advice and in the light of recent market transactions, as well as the estimated cost to complete the construction.

Investment Property

Investment property is measured at fair value. The fair value of investment property is determined by independent real estate valuation experts using recognised valuation techniques as defined in the standards of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) and other professional bodies. The fair values of properties are determined on the basis of recent real estate transactions - if available - with similar characteristics and locations to those of the Vesteda Companies’ assets.

The Discounted Cash Flow Method is used to determine the fair values of the investment property.

The Discounted Cash Flow Method involves the projection of a series of periodic cash flows associated with either an operating property or a development property. An appropriate, market-derived discount rate is applied to this projected cash flow series, to establish an indication of the current value of the income stream associated with the property. The calculated periodic cash flow is typically estimated as gross rental income less vacancy and collection losses and less operating expenses/outgoings. A series of periodic net operating incomes, along with an estimate of the reversion/terminal/exit value (which uses the traditional valuation approach) anticipated at the end of the projection period, are discounted to current value. The aggregate of the net current values equals the market value of the property.

The total portfolio is appraised comprehensively by external appraisers in the course of the year. Vestedas goal is to conduct comprehensive appraisals on approximately 25% of the portfolio each quarter. The remainder of the quarterly appraisals comprises a desktop update by the external appraisers.

Investment property under construction

Investment property under construction is also measured at fair value; for the method of determination of fair value reference is made to investment property.

Equal to investment property, the basis for the fair value determination including the necessary estimates involved is the valuation by independent real estate valuation experts using recognized valuation techniques.

The fair value is assessed by reference to market prices at the reporting date for similar completed property, less estimated costs to complete construction and less an estimate of the time value of money to the date of completion.

Development risks (such as construction and letting risks) are taken into consideration when determining the fair value of investment properties under construction.

Provisions for contractual obligations

A provision for future construction contracts is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Group has a present constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.