3. Critical accounting judgements and key sources of estimation uncertainty
In the application of the Vesteda’s accounting policies, which are described in Note 4, management is required to make judgements (other than those involving estimations) that have a significant impact on the amounts recognised and to make estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.
The following are the critical judgements, apart from those involving estimations (which are presented separately below), that management has made in the process of applying Vesteda’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in financial statements.
A property sale is recognised when the beneficial ownership, including the control of the property, has been transferred.
Classification of property
The Vesteda Companies use the following criteria to determine the classification of a property:
Investment property comprising land and buildings (principally residential properties) are held primarily to earn rental income and capital appreciation with the exception of properties which are not occupied substantially for use by, or in the operations of, the Vesteda Companies, or for sale in the ordinary course of business. Please see Note 15 Investment property.
Investment property under construction comprises land and buildings (principally residential properties) under construction with the aim of adding said property to the investment property portfolio upon completion.
Operating lease contracts – the Vesteda Companies as lessor IFRS 16
The Vesteda Companies have entered into property leases on their investment property portfolio. Vesteda has determined, based on an evaluation of the terms and conditions of the arrangements, that it retains all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of these properties and so accounts for the leases as operating leases.
Lease contracts – the Vesteda Companies as lessee
The Vesteda Companies have entered into land leases as a lessee. Vesteda has determined, based on an evaluation of the terms and conditions of the arrangements, that in most cases the land lease is an operating obligation, as the Vesteda Companies do not retain the significant risks and rewards incidental to ownership.
Lease classification is made at the inception date and is reassessed only if there is a lease modification. Changes in estimates or changes in circumstances do not give rise to a new classification of a lease for accounting purposes.
Vesteda is a mutual Fund for the joint account of the participants (Dutch: FGR). The Fund is tax transparent and investors can join or leave the Fund through the manager. Participants can hold their partnership contribution in Vesteda through an entity with its own legal and tax structure.
Each participant is therefore responsible for its individual tax liabilities and individual tax compliance obligations as a result of the issue, holding or redemption of participation rights.
The manager is responsible for compliance with the tax rulings relating to the holding and issue and redemption of participation rights.
Vesteda Investment Management B.V., Vesteda Project Development B.V., Vesteda Finance B.V. and Custodian Vesteda Fund (CVF) I B.V. are taxable for Dutch corporate income tax.
Furthermore, the Fund has an arrangement with the Dutch tax authorities known as horizontal supervision and several tax rulings exist regarding VAT and transfer tax.
The Vesteda Companies recognise liabilities for current taxes based on estimates of whether corporate income taxes will be due. When the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will affect the corporate income and deferred tax provisions in the period in which the determination is made. Any deferred tax asset relating to income tax on the possible offset of losses for tax purposes and differences between accounting policies for commercial and tax purposes is recognised at current tax rates to the extent that it is probable that they can be utilised.
Key sources of estimation uncertainty
The key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are discussed below.
Investment property is measured at fair value. The fair value of investment property is determined by external independent real estate valuation experts using recognised valuation techniques as defined in the standards of the Dutch Register of Real Estate Valuers (NRVT), the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) and other professional bodies. The fair values of properties are determined on the basis of recent real estate transactions - if available - with similar characteristics and locations to those of the Vesteda Companies’ assets.
The Discounted Cash Flow Method is used to determine the fair values of the investment property.
The Discounted Cash Flow Method involves the projection of a series of periodic cash flows associated with either an operating property or a development property. An appropriate, market-derived discount rate is applied to this projected cash flow series, to establish an indication of the current value of the income stream associated with the property. The calculated periodic cash flow is typically estimated as gross rental income less vacancy and collection losses and less operating expenses/outgoings. A series of periodic net operating incomes, along with an estimate of the reversion/terminal/exit value (which uses the traditional valuation approach) anticipated at the end of the projection period, are discounted to current value. The aggregate of the net current values equals the market value of the property.
The total portfolio is appraised comprehensively by external independent real estate valuation experts in the course of the year. Vesteda's goal is to conduct comprehensive appraisals on approximately 25% of the portfolio each quarter. The remainder of the quarterly appraisals comprises a desktop update by the external real estate valuation experts.
Investment property under construction
Investment property under construction is also measured at fair value; for the method of determination of fair value, we refer you to the above section, investment property.
As in the case of investment property, the fair value determination, including the necessary estimates involved, is based on the valuation by external independent real estate valuation experts using recognised valuation techniques.
The fair value is assessed by reference to market prices at the reporting date for similar completed property, less estimated costs to complete construction and less an estimate of the time value of money to the date of completion.
Development risks (such as construction and letting risks) are taken into consideration when determining the fair value of investment properties under construction.
Provisions for contractual obligations
A provision for future construction contracts is recognised if, as a result of a past event, Vesteda has a present construction obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.
To measure the right-of-use asset, a lessee is permitted to choose, on a lease-by-lease basis, using one of two methods: (i) right-of-use assets (mainly high value properties) measured on transition as if the new rules had always been applied, but discounted using the lessee’ incremental borrowing rate at the date of initial application; or (ii) right-of-use assets measured at the amount of the lease liability on adoption (adjusted for any prepaid or accrued lease expenses). These two available options will be applied on a lease-by-lease basis.
There are 3 types of right-of-use asset applicable for Vesteda: land lease, car lease and rental agreements.
The lease liability is primary the basis for the accounting of the right-of-use asset. The lease liability is based on the discounted expected future lease payments (including future ground lease redemptions) over the lease term. For determining the lease term the contractual lease term is taken into account with all options the lessee has for lengthening the contract. In general in the Netherlands the lease term is perpetual. Only in the municipality of Amsterdam, the contract has a continuous character with a potential break option by the lessee. As the property is so interlinked with the land lease, Vesteda concluded that the contract term for the Amsterdam contracts is perpetual as well although there is a theoretical break. The future payments are discounted with the incremental borrowing-rate.
If clear information was not readily available for determining the future cash flows, they are based on a fair value assessment at a moment in time at the inception of the contract, such as external valuation reports or benchmarking information from other land leases.
The discount rate was originally based on the yield of 3 outstanding bonds per the 31st of December 2018 the discount rate was calculated and set at 3%. In the short term the discount rate will not be adjusted. However if in the long run the interest rate on the bonds vary too much this can be adjusted.
The effect of inflation for the IFRS 16 position is calculated with 2% per year.
From a tenant perspective the land-leases that Vesteda holds are subject to changes in policy from the municipalities. In the municipality of Amsterdam, Vesteda has exercised the option to transfer Canon land lease to a perpetual land lease. The first transfer takes place in December 2022 and the final transfer is expected in 2025.